Edits By Knight

So you’re getting your story onto paper (or screen, as the case may be) and are thinking about hiring an editor to give it a once (or twice, maybe thrice) over. Maybe you’re on a tight budget and/or are trying to query publishing companies first, since they provide editing services, but you want your manuscript to be as polished as possible before you send it in. In this series, I’ve compiled a list of tips and tricks that will help you self-edit, and believe me, your editor will thank you for it!

Disclaimer: I named this post in jest! Really, I’d just like to give writers some tips, and perhaps placate a few editors 😉 So, without further ado, here’s some


Volume I: Confusing Dialogue

     When writing dialogue, it’s important to keep the flow of conversations going naturally. You don’t want your reader to be pulled out of the story by awkward wording or misplaced punctuation. If it’s difficult to tell who is talking, or the prevalence of  tags breaks the conversation up too much, your readers will get frustrated and might throw your book across the room in a fit of petulant rage. That is probably not something you wish to encourage.

     Obviously, there are a lot of mistakes you can make here. Errors in tags, punctuation, capitalization, and layout can drive your editor up the wall if they’re present throughout your manuscript. They will also distract–and probably confuse–the reader (which, let’s be honest, is the real issue here). You have to be careful, even with editing software; for example, one editor mentioned that Word will automatically capitalize anything after quotation marks (how dumb is that?) Here are a few of the most common issues we run across:


     Dialogue tags are the “he said, she said” of the writing world. The two main issues most writers have are knowing which ones to use and how many to use.

     Word choice is of utmost importance when writing tags; while you don’t want the conversation to be flat, when you use too many exotic tags it can be extremely distracting. Don’t be afraid to just say “said” in your dialogue! It blends into the background while still clarifying the speaker. When you’d like a particular phrase to stand out or are trying to set a specific mood, it’s perfectly fine, even desirable, to use something more descriptive like “yelled” or “whispered”. However, if you’re using a different word every time, particularly an unusual one (I have one client that was overly fond of the word “hollered” but luckily he wasn’t married to it), the tags can steal the spotlight from what’s actually being said.

     You also want to make sure you’re using the proper tags. If you use “replied” at the beginning of a conversation, it will be confusing, as the reader will be wondering just who the character is replying to. Additionally, make sure the connotation of the word matches what’s being said. “Confessed” and “admitted” imply that the character is revealing something they would rather not, such as something they are ashamed of, whereas “declare” and “state” carry connotations of blunt and/or direct remarks to which the character does not necessarily expect a response.

     Deciding how many tags to use can also be challenging. Too few tags and the reader may lose track of who’s talking; too many and the dialogue becomes choppy and hard to follow. When there are only two characters engaged in the conversation and it consists mainly of short, one or two sentence lines, you won’t need many tags; the reader will know who is talking without being explicitly told. However, if there are more than two characters, you will need to use more tags.

     You can also use action beats in place of dialogue tags. A character may lift an eyebrow, laugh, or shift uncomfortably; when you mention this, the reader will automatically assume that the next line is spoken by the character to whom the action applies.


     Dialogue probably has the most complicated punctuation rules of all. I most often find an abundance of periods where a comma should have been used. If you place a tag before a line of dialogue, you should always use a comma to separate the tag from the speech. If you place the tag in the middle of a sentence, a comma should be used before the tag (inside the quotation marks) and after the tag (outside the quotes).

     However, when you are placing the tag after the dialogue, there are a few things you need to consider before deciding which punctuation mark to use. Is it a question? Use a question mark. If the character is shouting, you should use an exclamation point. For any sentence that would end in a period, though, you should use a comma. Note that the tag will ONLY be capitalized if it is at the beginning of the dialogue.

For more on capitalization, take a look at this post about a client who changed my perspective on the capitalization of racial descriptors.


     While it is generally not your editor’s job to fix layout (except perhaps during the final proofread), inconsistent spacing and paragraphs can be very difficult to ignore. If you’ve double-spaced dialogue with no indention in one place, then you shouldn’t put it the way this post is laid out in another. Most word processing programs have options for paragraph styles that will ensure that your formatting is consistent throughout your manuscript.

Here is a sample dialogue I made up on the fly:

     “How do you think I feel?” she asked.

     He sniffed. “I assumed you would be grateful.”

     “Well,” she replied, “you assumed wrong.”

     “I can never win with you!” he exclaimed, exasperated. “Every time I try to do something nice, you throw it in my face!”

     “Maybe that’s because you’ve never taken the time to consider–”

     He cut her off with a dismissive gesture. “I’ve already spent too much time on you. You’re so dramatic! If it’s not one thing, it’s another. I’m done.” He turned to leave.

     “Wait,” she called. “I’m sorry.” Her eyes welled up with tears and she stifled a sob.

     He paused, then said, “It’s too little, too late,” and stalked away through the trees.

     Hopefully this will give you a bit of insight to help you improve your dialogue (and give your editor a bit more time to focus on your story instead of just trudging through the technical bits!)

If you’re a freelancer (or interested in becoming one) be sure to check out Freelancing: An Editor’s Journey for some tips and a more personal look at the trials–and rewards–of freelancing.


I would like to give special thanks to all of my friends on Twitter who replied to my tweet with their biggest pet peeves, especially:

Rob Bignell (@InventingRealit)

LB Harpdog (@HarpdogLb)

Jeni Chappelle (@jenichappelle

Kathryn CJ Hall (@kathrynhall_

Michaeli lives in Harvest, Alabama with her fiance, Mark. They have two cats, Henry and Louise, and live the quiet and satisfying lives of two nerdy introverts. In her spare time, Michaeli enjoys playing the piano, singing, playing JRPGs, Tabletop gaming, and (of course) reading.